Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing
development of blood supply from the internal mammary artery and to discus
s the value of embolization of the abnormal branches from this vessel using
small particles following occlusion of the normal distal branches using mi
crocoils in treating hemoptysis.
Material and Methods: Five patients with hemoptysis underwent internal mamm
ary artery embolization with coaxial microcatheter systems. Bronchoscopy, c
hest radiographs, and CT were performed to determine the site and extent of
the basic disease before embolotherapy in all patients.
Results. In all patients, pulmonary lesions had extended from the lung to t
he adjacent pleural surface at the anterior lung field. Four patients under
went embolization from the proximal portion of the internal mammary artery
following distal coil embolization. One patient who underwent only proximal
embolization had recurrent bleeding.
Conclusion: The internal mammary artery contributes to the perfusion of les
ions responsible for hemoptysis when the basic lesion involves the pulmonar
y parenchyma adjacent to the anterior pleural surface. Initial distal occlu
sion of the internal mammary artery may improve the efficacy of embolizatio
n of this artery for hemoptysis.