Breast cancer: evidence for xeno-oestrogen involvement in altering its incidence and risk

Authors
Citation
Jj. Li et Sa. Li, Breast cancer: evidence for xeno-oestrogen involvement in altering its incidence and risk, PUR A CHEM, 70(9), 1998, pp. 1713-1723
Citations number
81
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Chemistry
Journal title
PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY
ISSN journal
0033-4545 → ACNP
Volume
70
Issue
9
Year of publication
1998
Pages
1713 - 1723
Database
ISI
SICI code
0033-4545(199809)70:9<1713:BCEFXI>2.0.ZU;2-A
Abstract
This review specifically addresses whether environmental oestrogen xenobiot ics increase breast cancer risk, and thus contribute to the gradual and per sistent rise in breast cancer incidence since 1940. Xeno-oestrogens are a s tructurally diverse group of chemicals that includes organochlorine pestici des, herbicides, pollutants, industrial chemicals, and metabolites of poten t carcinogens. They possess oestrogenic activity, and when compared to that of 17 beta-oestradiol, their oestrogenic potency ranges from weak (10(-3)) to extremely weak (10(-6)), using a variety of in-vivo and in-vitro endpoi nts. It is evident that the sequestering of xeno-oestrogens in mammalian ad ipose tissue and their gradual release may not be a property of all xeno-oe strogens. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies of individual xeno-oestr ogens [e.g., dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyl dichl oroethane (DDE), dieldrin, aldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthal ates] are revealing. Only atrazine has been shown to have the mammary gland as a marginal target site for cancer. A number of xeno-oestrogens; (DDT, D DE, PCBs) induce lymphomas and tumours in the Liver and lung, and in variou s murine species. Human neoplasms induced by individual xeno-oestrogens lar gely reflect those induced in animal studies, with possible additional asso ciations of pancreatic and haematologic cancers. Earlier small case-control studies lent credence to an association of xeno-oestrogens and breast canc er. Subsequent larger prospective case-control studies from the USA, Europe , and Mexico, however, do not support this relationship. It is concluded fr om the evidence presented that xeno-oestrogens do not play a significant ro le in human breast cancer aetiology, its subsequent development, or in the gradual rise in breast cancer incidence.