Promotion of estrogen-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis by androgen in the male Noble rat: probable mediation by steroid receptors

Citation
Dzj. Liao et al., Promotion of estrogen-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis by androgen in the male Noble rat: probable mediation by steroid receptors, CARCINOGENE, 19(12), 1998, pp. 2173-2180
Citations number
39
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Onconogenesis & Cancer Research
Journal title
CARCINOGENESIS
ISSN journal
0143-3334 → ACNP
Volume
19
Issue
12
Year of publication
1998
Pages
2173 - 2180
Database
ISI
SICI code
0143-3334(199812)19:12<2173:POEMGC>2.0.ZU;2-8
Abstract
Both endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure is associated with an incre ased breast cancer risk. In some studies, elevated serum testosterone level s have also been linked to an increased breast cancer risk. Estrogen alone or combined with progesterone induces high mammary tumor incidences in vari ous strains of both male and female rats. Mammary gland ductal adenocarcino mas were induced after 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) and testosterone propionate (TP) treatment in male Noble rats. Tumor incidence was 100% after 8-9 month s of treatment. Such neoplasms were not detected after either estrogen or a ndrogen exposure alone within this time period. TP alone caused disruption of mammary gland ducts and proliferation of stromal tissue, while E-2 treat ment alone induced both ductal epithelial growth and nodular atypical hyper plasia, To study the interaction of these hormones in mammary tumorigenesis , sex hormone receptors were characterized in mammary glands of Noble rats. Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) was detected in age-matched, untreated mammar y gland epithelium; in most early atypical hyperplastic lesions appearing a fter E-2 and E-2 + TP treatment and in E-2 + TP-induced mammary tumors. Two major ER putative isoforms, 116 and 120 kDa, were detected in E-2- and E-2 + TP-treated mammary glands, and in the induced tumors. A 54 kDa ER protei n was found in untreated and TP-treated mammary glands, and in the induced tumors. Both progesterone receptor-B (PR-B) and PR-A2, as well as androgen receptor-B (AR-B) and AR-A isoforms were markedly elevated in all E-2 + TP- induced mammary tumors. However, the levels of both PR and AR were very low in mammary glands of E-2- and E-2 + TP-treated male rats. Low and moderate levels of AR and PR, respectively, were detected in most atypical hyperpla stic lesions induced by E-2- and E-2 + TP-treated mammary glands. These res ults suggest that androgens may interact with either AR or PR, and perhaps both receptors, in E-2 + TP-induced mammary glands and the induced tumors t o effect the reduction in latency period, enhance tumor size, and increase incidence to 100%.