Control of translation initiation in animals

Citation
Nk. Gray et M. Wickens, Control of translation initiation in animals, ANN R C DEV, 14, 1998, pp. 399-458
Citations number
376
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Review
Categorie Soggetti
Cell & Developmental Biology
Journal title
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
ISSN journal
1081-0706 → ACNP
Volume
14
Year of publication
1998
Pages
399 - 458
Database
ISI
SICI code
1081-0706(1998)14:<399:COTIIA>2.0.ZU;2-H
Abstract
Regulation of translation initiation is a central control point in animal c ells. We review our current understanding of the mechanisms of regulation, drawing particularly on examples in which the biological consequences of th e regulation are clear. Specific mRNAs can be controlled via sequences in t heir 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and by alterations in the transl ation machinery. The 5'UTR sequence can determine which initiation pathway is used to bring the ribosome to the initiation codon, how efficiently init iation occurs, and which initiation site is selected. 5'UTR-mediated contro l can also be accomplished via sequence-specific mRNA-binding proteins. Seq uences in the 3' untranslated region and the poly(A) tail can have dramatic effects on initiation frequency, with particularly profound effects in oog enesis and early development. The mechanism by which 3'UTRs and poly(A) reg ulate initiation may involve contacts between proteins bound to these regio ns and the basal translation apparatus, mRNA localization signals in the 3' UTR can also dramatically influence translational activation and repression . Modulations of the initiation machinery, including phosphorylation of ini tiation factors and their regulated association with other proteins, can re gulate both specific mRNAs and overall translation rates and thereby affect cell growth and phenotype.