SONG STRUCTURE AND PATTERNS OF WING MOVEM ENT IN THE EUROPEAN STARLING (STURNUS-VULGARIS)

Authors
Citation
J. Bohner et F. Veit, SONG STRUCTURE AND PATTERNS OF WING MOVEM ENT IN THE EUROPEAN STARLING (STURNUS-VULGARIS), Journal fur Ornithologie, 134(3), 1993, pp. 309-315
Citations number
17
Language
TEDESCO
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Ornithology
Journal title
ISSN journal
0021-8375
Volume
134
Issue
3
Year of publication
1993
Pages
309 - 315
Database
ISI
SICI code
0021-8375(1993)134:3<309:SSAPOW>2.0.ZU;2-3
Abstract
Song structure and accompanying wing movements were studied in six sta rling male in the, field. The song consists of a predictable sequence (A-B-C-D) of structurally different motif classes (A: low whistles, B: complex motifs, C: click motifs, D: high whistles and trills). Not al l motif classes, however, necessarily occur in one and the same song b out (strophe). Singing is often accompanied by two patterns of wing mo vement: flicking and waving. Significantly often click motifs and wing flicking occur simultaneously, as do high terminal whistles and wing waving. Due to the rather fixed sequence of the structurally different motif classes within a strophe and the coupling of wing flicking and wing waving with motif classes C and D, respectively, the second part of the song - especially the terminal part - is very conspicious on th e level of both acoustic and visual displays. The simultaneous occurre nce of waving and motif class D points to the possibility that this te rminal part of the strophe is of specific functional significance.