TOBACCO AND OTHER RISK-FACTORS FOR ESOPHAGEAL CANCER IN ALCOHOL NONDRINKERS

Citation
A. Tavani et al., TOBACCO AND OTHER RISK-FACTORS FOR ESOPHAGEAL CANCER IN ALCOHOL NONDRINKERS, European journal of cancer prevention, 5(5), 1996, pp. 313-318
Citations number
34
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Oncology
ISSN journal
0959-8278
Volume
5
Issue
5
Year of publication
1996
Pages
313 - 318
Database
ISI
SICI code
0959-8278(1996)5:5<313:TAORFE>2.0.ZU;2-0
Abstract
Information on the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in alcohol non-drin kers will help us to understand and quantitate risk factors for the di sease in the absence of alcohol. Out of a total of 316 cases with hist ologically confirmed incident cancers of the oesophagus, 40 (22 men an d 18 women) who described themselves as alcohol non-drinkers were cons idered. These patients were compared with 151 alcohol non-drinkers (79 men and 72 women) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non -alcohol-, non-smoking-related conditions. The major risk factor for c ancer of the oesophagus in non-drinkers was current elevated cigarette smoking: compared with never smokers, the odds ratio (OR) for all cur rent smokers was 3.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-8.1]. The OR w as 0.8 (95% CI 0.2-3.4) for ex-smokers, 1.3 (95% CI 0.4-4.2) for curre nt smokers of fewer than 20 cigarettes per day and 7.5 (95% CI 2.7-20. 4) for current smokers of more than 20 cigarettes per day, Risk also i ncreased with duration of smoking (OR 4.9 for more than 30 years smoki ng), and in smokers starting the habit when aged 25 or younger (OR 3.9 ). Few years of education and gastrectomy were also associated with el evated risk, while a high fruit intake was associated with reduced ris k (OR 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, for 7-13 and > 13 portions per week c ompared with < 7), When the combined effect of smoking and fruit intak e on the risk of oesophageal cancer was considered, compared with non- smokers eating more than 7 fruit portions per week, the OR for current smokers eating 7 or less fruit portions per week was 7.3. Thus, even in the absence of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and a diet poor in fruit are important avoidable risk factors for oesophageal cancer.