INTAKE OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND RISK OF BREAST-CANCER

Citation
S. Franceschi et al., INTAKE OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND RISK OF BREAST-CANCER, Lancet, 347(9012), 1996, pp. 1351-1356
Citations number
29
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Journal title
LancetACNP
ISSN journal
0140-6736
Volume
347
Issue
9012
Year of publication
1996
Pages
1351 - 1356
Database
ISI
SICI code
0140-6736(1996)347:9012<1351:IOMARO>2.0.ZU;2-S
Abstract
Background The association between risk of breast cancer and dietary f at and intakes of other energy sources remains controversial. The Ital ian population offers special opportunities to assess the influence of high intakes of unsaturated fat and starch and, because the populatio n has low awareness of diet and cancer issues, there is less scope for recall bias. We have assessed the relations of various macronutrient intakes with risk of breast cancer. Methods In this case-control study , 2569 women with incident breast cancer (median age 55 years) and 258 8 control women (median age 56 years) in hospital with acute, non-neop lastic diseases, were interviewed in six different areas of Italy betw een 1991 and 1994. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used. It included questions on 78 foods and recipes grouped into six section s, as well as specific questions on individual fat-intake pattern. Fin dings The risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing total fat in take (trend p 0.01) whereas the risk increased with increasing intake of available carbohydrates (trend p=0.002). The odds ratios for women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted in take were 0.81 for total fat and 1.30 for available carbohydrates. Sta rch was the chief contributor to the positive association with availab le carbohydrates. High intakes of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatt y acids tie, polyunsaturated fatty acids plus oleic acid) were associa ted with a decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratios for highest vs lowest quintile 0.70 and 0.74, respectively). Conversely, the intakes of saturated fatty acids, protein, and fibre were not significantly a ssociated with breast-cancer risk. Interpretation This case-control st udy shows that unsaturated fatty acids protect against breast cancer, possibly because intake of these nutrients is closely correlated with a high intake of raw vegetables. The findings also suggest a possible risk, in southern European populations, of reliance on a diet largely based on starch.