PRELIMINARY-STUDY OF HOW ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY AFFECTSIMMUNE COMPONENTS IN BREAST-MILK AND BLOOD OF POSTPARTUM WOMEN

Citation
Hr. Na et al., PRELIMINARY-STUDY OF HOW ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY AFFECTSIMMUNE COMPONENTS IN BREAST-MILK AND BLOOD OF POSTPARTUM WOMEN, Alcohol and alcoholism, 32(5), 1997, pp. 581-589
Citations number
41
Language
INGLESE
art.tipo
Article
Categorie Soggetti
Substance Abuse
Journal title
ISSN journal
0735-0414
Volume
32
Issue
5
Year of publication
1997
Pages
581 - 589
Database
ISI
SICI code
0735-0414(1997)32:5<581:POHADP>2.0.ZU;2-C
Abstract
Human milk has been shown to contain numerous immune components that c an potentially protect the infant during the period before its own imm une system is completely developed. Alcohol consumption in both experi mental animals and humans has been associated with alterations to a nu mber of immune parameters. We have investigated the possibility that a lcohol consumption during pregnancy alters certain immune components i n day 3 postpartum breast milk and peripheral blood of women. Our stud y group consisted of 10 alcoholic beverage drinkers (moderate to heavy , most of whom smoked a 1/2-1 pack of cigarettes per day), 15 non-drin king/non-smoking controls, and 10 non-drinking/smokers (1/2-1 pack per day) controls. The immune parameters measured in these otherwise heal thy women were: (1) percentage and absolute number of the various subs ets of leukocytes; (2) percentage of T cells, B cells, T helper and cy totoxic/suppressors subsets, and natural killer cells; (3) levels of t he cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha; (4) levels of IgA in milk and I gG in serum. Milk from the alcohol group contained an elevated amount of IL-8 as compared with milk from non-smoker controls; however, it di d not differ statistically from that of the smoker controls. Blood fro m the alcohol group showed an increased level of IL-8 when compared wi th that from both smoker and non-smoker controls. The total number of leukocytes in milk was elevated in milk from the alcohol group as comp ared to both the smoker and nonsmoker control groups. In the leukocyte component of milk, neutrophils predominate and are responsible for th e elevation in total number of cells, as both lymphocyte and macrophag e populations did not differ from those of the controls. For lymphocyt es, B cells were also increased in blood of the smokers as compared wi th the alcohol and non-smoker controls. There were no statistical diff erences in any of the other immune parameters tested among the three g roups. The present study found that alcohol consumption during pregnan cy could modulate the production of IL-8 and infiltration of certain l eukocytes in milk and blood of postpartum women. Some of these alterat ions were also evident in the smoker controls and thus could not be at tributed to alcohol consumption alone.